The Countdown to 2030 Drivers Technical Working Group (DTWG) is derived from two technical working groups that functioned in Countdown to 2015: the Health Systems and Policies TWG and the Financial Flows TWG.

The focus of work for the Countdown to 2030 DTWG is analysis of key contextual drivers for equitable & effective intervention coverage for RMNCAH and nutrition, whether linked to social determinants, health systems and policies, financing, or the broader political economy. DTWG activities include contributing to the production of the Countdown profiles and global reports, and carrying out research leading to publications or in support of the Regional Network Initiatives. Each thematic area illustrates a key interface within health systems, whether at the patient-provider level (digital health), health facility level (MPDSR and other organisational change efforts), across sectors supporting health (adolescent health), and as a cross-cutting determinant of health (gender).

The DTWG collaborates closely with the WHO Policy Reference Group on generating high quality policy and health systems related data. And, the DTWG includes representation of finance experts so that the group is closely coordinated with other ongoing financial tracking efforts.

The DTWG also works closely with the Equity and Coverage Technical Working Groups, ensuring selected analyses undertaken each year are complementary and provide a critical lens on progress with programmatic and policy implications.

CD2030 Drivers Technical Working Group Published Research

Publications (including articles, reports, country profiles and briefs) will be posted on this page as they are published.

George A, LeFevre AE, Jacobs T, et al. Lenses and levels: the why, what and how of measuring health system drivers of women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health with a governance focus. BMJ Glob Health 2019 Jun; 4:i143–i153. doi:10.1136/ bmjgh-2018-001316.

Jennings L, George A, Jacobs, T, et al. A forgotten group during humanitarian crises: a systematic review of sexual and reproductive health interventions for young people including adolescents in humanitarian settings Conflict & Health 13, 57 (2019) doi:10.1186/s13031-019-0240-y

Kinney MV, Walugembe DR, Wanduru P, et al. Implementation of maternal and perinatal death reviews: a scoping review protocol BMJ Open 2019;9:e031328. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031328

Tiffin N, George A, LeFevre AE. How to use relevant data for maximal benefit with minimal risk: digital health data governance to protect vulnerable populations in low income and middle-income countriesBMJ Glob Health 2019;4:e001395. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001395

George A, Amin A, GarcÍa-Moreno C, Sen G. Gender Equality and Health: Laying the Foundations for ChangeThe Lancet, Volume 393, Issue 10189, 2019, Pages 2369-2371, ISSN 0140-6736,

Schneider H, van der Merwe M, Marutla B, Joseph Cupido J, Kauchali S. The Whole is More Than the Sum of the Parts: Establishing an Enabling Health System Environment for Reducing Acute Child Malnutrition in a Rural South African DistrictHealth Policy and Planning, Volume 34, Issue 6, July 2019, Pages 430-439,

George A, Lefevre A, Ved R. Taming the wild west of digital health innovationProject Syndicate. June 11, 2019.
(Click here for full article:

George AS, Avni A, De Abreu Lopes CM, et al. Structural determinants of gender inequality: why the matter for adolescent girls’ sexual and reproductive health. BMJ 2020;368 doi:

LeFevre AE, Shah N, Harrisson Bashingwa JJ, et al. Does women’s mobile phone ownership matter for health? Evidence from 15 countries. BMJ Glob Health 2020;5:e002524. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002524

To see a list of all the publications completed under Countdown to 2015, please click here.

Note: Under Countdown to 2015, colleagues at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine published a dataset containing 2.1 million records used to generate estimates of official development assistance (ODA) to reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) based upon donor, recipient country and activity type between 2003 and 2013. The dataset is here: A Tableau visualization is here:!/vizhome/WorldRMNCH/DisbursementsRMNCH.